endangered

Glycine Clandestina: Endangered 
Davidsonia Jerseyana: Endangered 
Grevillea Caleyi: Critically Endangered 

Australia’s beautiful native plants are at risk with the threat of extinction.

There are 24,000 species of native plants in Australia, and already many are extinct or threatened.

The government’s latest data lists 37 plants as extinct, 197 as critically endangered, and 555 as endangered.

One of these listed is the Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve located in St Ives on the North Shore of Sydney.

The reserve is home to Blue Gum High Forest, a critically endangered ecological community made up of 180 Indigenous plant species. The forest is unique as it only occurs in the Sydney region.

Over the years, the forest has faced many threats, including in 1880, the first settlers logged the forest to build roads and bridges. In the 1920s, the forest was used to help construct the railway and then later felled to give way for housing development.

Today, the invasion of weeds, storm water run-off and rubbish dumping further threaten the forest.

Before 1788, 3720ha remained, but now only 4.5%, 167ha, of the original forest exists in patches across the Sydney region.

*These images have been taken on the land of the Gadigal people. 

bush care

Blue Gum High Forest: Critically Endangered 
Blue Gum High Forest: Critically Endangered  

Pat Chadwhick, 75, has been a bush care volunteer since  2006. She can be found at the reserve every second and fourth Sunday of the month.

A small group of volunteers work to weed out invaded and native plants that don’t belong to keep the forest in its most original state.

Pat is one of 17,000 volunteers across Sydney working to restore bushland.

Bush care programs are an integral part of keeping native plants and habitat thriving.

The reserve is under Ku-ring-Gai councils management, who work closely with the State and Federal government to ensure the reserve is adequately protected.

Chelsea Costello is the Natural Areas Officer who oversees the management of protected areas in the region.

She believes that volunteers play an immensely important part in bush rehabilitation and ensure that sites stay preserved, but there is a huge amount of work behind the scenes that safeguard threatened species.

“Every two years sites, are reviewed.. and the way they’re prioritised is based on the significance of the vegetation community or the threatened species within the zone.

“If you’ve got Blue Forest or Turpentine Ironbark Forest, it would rate really high.”

Removing weeds at Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve 
Bush care at Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve 

She believes the future of protecting our threatened native species is through education and community understanding.

“I think education is really important for the community because a lot of the time people genuinely just don’t understand how sensitive the bushland is.

“It could only be a tiny patch of vegetation on their land, and they just don’t realise what they’re doing could seriously be impacting community bushland.”

She believes that Ku-ring-Gai Council does a lot to help aid native bushland, by having signage that explains the importance of the native flora and doing regular letter drops.

Bossiaea Obcordata: Not at risk 
Poa Labillardierei: Not at risk 
Westringia Fruticosa: Not at risk 

The  biggest risk she believes in the future is managing threatened species on private land.

“70%, of  threatened species are now occurring on private land.

“So I think that’s probably where the biggest risk will be looking into the future. Because it’s such small patches on private property, it’s really difficult to manage.”

Ms. Costello explained that, 1 tree on a private property doesn’t sound like a lot but when you have 1 threatened tree on 100 separate properties it becomes a lot harder to manage.

“So I think it’s definitely going to be one of the biggest challenges in the future, making sure threatened communities are protected across private properties.”

Without bush care volunteers, it’s hard to say what Australia’s native bushland would like.

Pat believes one of the best parts of being a volunteer is, “the peace of mind and getting to see nature carrying on doing its own thing to shine.”

The volunteer group has other benefits as well, not just helping the Blue Gums but also providing a way for meaningful community connection.

“I meet all these beautiful people who similarly give their time and are passionate about the bush, and we generally talk about everything.

“We’re greenies.”

 into the vault…

Melaleuca Hypericifolia: Not at risk 
Eucalyptus Capitellata: Protected 
Angophora Crassifolia: Rare
Credit: Australian Botanic Gardens 
Credit: Australian Botanic Gardens
The Australian National Seedbank is home to thousands of Australian native seeds.

Tom North is a curator at the National Seed Bank inside the Australian National Botanic Gardens.

The Seed bank has been growing steadily since the 1960s, home to thousands of plant species. In the last eight years alone, three and a half thousand seeds have been added to the collection.

He says that collecting seeds is a complicated process, first as much research needs to be collected on how the plant functions by monitoring when it flowers and when it produces fruit before a seed can be filed.

Seeds in the seed bank range from decades old through to centuries, but they need to be brought out and tested regularly.

It differs from species to species; for example, Alpine Species only store for a decade, so they need to be retested and recollected.

Most seeds are stored by drying them down to a very low moisture content between 3-7%.

Then are then packaged into packets, and put in the freezer at -20 degrees.

“At that low temperature and moisture content, we’re not doing any damage to the seed.

“They’re not forming any crystals in their cells and, we are able to store them for long periods of time.”

Around the world, there is a goal to conserve 25% of the world’s flora within seed banks.

Some of Australia’s threatened species can be found at the Millennium Seed Bank located in Kew, England, which stores the world’s largest and most diverse plant seeds in the world.

Mr. North believes the key to our environmental future is through preserving seeds in seed banks across different countries. 

“We need to rethink the way we collect and regenerate… to make sure we have a backup in seed banks for the future.”

throughout history…

Macrozamia Communis: Not at risk  
Calochilus Campestris: Rare
Eucalyptus Haemastoma: Protected 

Throughout history, plants have always been put on the wayside.

Paul Adam, a botanist, and geographer believes that there has been a long history of people thinking exclusively about animals regarding the natural environment.

“Historically, the protection of plants has been relatively limited. Animals come first in the general public’s mind and they still do.

“It’s a long history and, it’s difficult to work why it’s there.”

Coined ‘Plant Blindness,’ the theory states that humans don’t recognise plants’ contributions as much as they recognise animals in the wild.

The term was created by botanists Elizabeth Schussler and James Wandersee in 1999.

The bias is attributed to several factors, including a greater focus on animals in education, the lack of plants’ movement, slow growth, and similar colour. These factors contribute to grouping plants as one whole matter in a person’s mind. 

He believes that it’s a huge issue especially when it comes to saving Australian threatened native species.

“In terms of funding, if there’s a particular appeal, people give money for koala conservation, they’re not going to give money for some obscure species of plant.”

Mr. Adam believes the key to change societies thinking about plants is through education at young age.

With more threatened species added to the list every year, Paul Adam believes that education is more important than ever.

“Natural history has got squeezed out of the curriculum but it’s a side of education that we urgently need to revisit.”

Grevillea Buxfiolia: Not at risk 
Comesperma Ericinum: Not at risk
Kunzea Capitata: Not at risk